Oregon 100 Checklist
We will be adding images, descriptions, and excerpts for each of the following books as time allows.
- [Adams, John Quincy.] Territory West of the Rocky Mountains. Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting the Correspondence between this Government and that of Great Britain, on the Subject of the Claims of the two Governments to the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains. March 15, 1828. 20th Congress, 1st Session, House of Representatives Executive Document 199. Washington: s.n., 1828.
- Allen, Miss A. J. Ten Years in Oregon: Travels and Adventures of Dr. E. White and Lady, West of the Rocky Mountains: with Incidents of Two Sea Voyages via Sandwich Islands around Cape Horn: Containing, also, a Brief History of the Missions and Settlements of the Country – Origin of the Provisional Government – Number and Customs of the Indians – Incidents Witnessed while Traversing and Residing in the Territory – Description of the Soil, Production and Climate of the Country. Ithaca: Mack, Andrus, & Co., Printers, 1848.
- Applegate, Jesse. “A Day with the Cow Column in 1843.” Transactions of the Fourth Annual Re-Union of the Oregon Pioneer Association; for 1876; and the Annual Address Delivered by Hon. R. P. Boise, together with the Occasional Addresses by Hon. John Minto; Poem by E. Eberhardt, Esq.; and an Article Written by Hon. Jesse Applegate. Salem: E.M. Waite, Steam Printer and Bookbinder, 1877. 57-65.
- Armstrong, A. N. Oregon, Comprising a Brief History and Full Description of the Territories of Oregon and Washington, Embracing the Cities, Towns, Rivers, Bays, Harbors, Coasts, Mountains, Valleys, Prairies and Plains; Together with Remarks upon the Social Position, Productions, Resources and Prospects of the Country, a Dissertation upon the Climate and a Full Description of the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Slope, their Manners, etc., Interspersed with Incidents of Travel and Adventure. Chicago, IL: Chas. Scott & Co., 1857.
- Beeson, John. A Plea for the Indians; with Facts and Features of the Late War in Oregon. New York: by author, 1857.
- Bennett, Emerson; [Sidney Walter Moss?]. Prairie Flower; or, Adventures in the Far West. Cincinnati: Stratton & Barnard, 1848.
- Blanchet, Francis Norbert. Historical Sketches of the Catholic Church in Oregon. Portland: Catholic Sentinel, 1878.
- Brown, J[ohn] Henry. Brown’s Political History of Oregon, Provisional Government Treaties, Conventions, and Diplomatic Correspondence on the Boundary Question; Historical Introduction of the Explorations on the Pacific Coast; History of the Provisional Government from Year to Year, with Election Returns and Official Reports; History of the Cayuse War, with Original Documents. Portland: Wiley B. Allen, 1892.
- Browne, J. Ross; Jean B. A. Brouillet. Indian War in Oregon and Washington Territories. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, Transmitting, in Compliance with the Resolution of the House of the 15th Instant, the Report of J. Ross Browne, on the Subject of the Indian War in Oregon and Washington Territories. Washington, DC: n.p. 1858.
- Burnett, Peter H. Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1880.
- Chittenden, Hiram Martin. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. New York: Francis P. Harper, 1902.
- Clarke, S. A. Pioneer Days of Oregon History. Portland: J.K. Gill, 1905.
- Clyman, James]; Charles L[ewis] Camp, editor. James Clyman, American Frontiersman, 1792-1881. The Adventures of a Trapper and Covered Wagon Emigrant as Told in his own Reminiscences and Diaries. San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1928.
- Coke, Henry J. A Ride over the Rocky Mountains to Oregon and California. With a Glance at some of the Tropical Islands, Including the West Indies and the Sandwich Isles. London: R. Bentley, 1852.
- Coues, Elliott. The Early History of the Greater Northwest. The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry Fur Trader of the Northwest Company and of David Thompson Official Geographer and Explorer of the same Company 1799-1814. Exploration and Adventure among the Indians on the Red, Saskatchewan, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers. New York: Francis P. Harper, 1897.
- Cox, Ross. Adventures on the Columbia River. London: H. Colburn and R. Bentley, 1831.
- Crawford, C. H. Scenes of Earlier Days in Crossing the Plains to Oregon, and Experiences of Western Life. Petaluma: J.T. Studdert, Book and Job Printer, 1898.
- Cross, Osborne. “A Report, in the Form of a Journal, to the Quartermaster General, of the March of the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen to Oregon, from May 10 to October 5, 1849, by Major O. Cross, Quartermaster United States Army.” Annual Report of the Quartermaster General of the Operations of The Quartermaster’s Department for the Fiscal Year Ending on the 30th June, 1850. By Thomas S. Jesup. Washington, DC: C. Alexander, 1851.
- Cushing, Caleb. Territory of Oregon. [To accompany bill H. R. No. 976.] [Washington, D.C.]: Thomas Allen, print., 1839. And: Territory of Oregon. [Supplemental Report]. [Washington, D.C.]: Thomas Allen, print., 1839.
- Dale, Harrison Clifford. The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829. Arthur H. Clark, 1918. (Revised edition, 1941).
- Damon, Samuel C. A Trip from the Sandwich Islands to Lower Oregon, and Upper California; or, Thirty Leaves Selected from “Our Log-Book.” Honolulu: Printed at the Polynesian Office, 1849.
- De Smet, Father P[ierre] J[ean], S.J. Oregon Missions and Travels Over the Rocky Mountains, in 1845-46. New York: Edward Dunigan, 1847.
- Dixon, George] [Beresford, William.] A Voyage Round the World; But More Particularly to the North-west Coast of America. J. Stockdale & G. Goulding, 1789.
- Douglas, David] Hooker, W. J. Companion to the Botanical Magazine : Being a journal, containing such interesting botanical information, as does not come within the prescribed limits of the magazine; with occasional figures. London: Samuel Curtis, 1835.
- Drury, Clifford Merrill. Henry Harmon Spalding, Pioneer of Old Oregon. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, 1936.
- Drury, Clifford Merrill. Marcus Whitman, M.D., Pioneer and Martyr. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd, 1937.
- Duflot de Mofras. Exploration du Territoire de l’Orégon, des Californies et de la mer Vermeille, Exécutée pendant les Années 1840, 1841 et 1842. Paris: A. Bertrand, 1844.
- Duniway, Abigail. Captain Gray’s Company; or Crossing the Plains and Living in Oregon. Portland: S.J. McCormick, 1859.
- Dunn, John. The Oregon Territory, and the British North American Fur Trade. With an Account of the Habits and Customs of the Principal Native Tribes on the Northern Continent. Philadelphia: G. B. Zieber & Co., 1845.
- Edwards, P[hilip] L. Sketch of the Oregon Territory; or, Emigrant’s Guide. Liberty, Mo.: Printed at the “Herald” Office, 1842.
- Evans, Elwood. History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington : Embracing an Account of the Original Discoveries on the Pacific Coast of North America; and a Description of the Conquest, Settlement and Subjugation of the Vast Country Included in the Original Territory of Oregon; also Interesting Biographies of the Earliest Settlers and More Prominent Men and Women of the Pacific Northwest; Including a Statistical and Ggraphic Description of the Climate, Soil, Productions, Industries, Improvements and Occupations, as well as the Natural Advantages and Resources and Artificial Acquirements of the Great States of Oregon and Washington. Portland: North Pacific History Company, 1889.
- Falconer, Thomas. The Oregon Question; or, a Statement of the British Claims to the Oregon Territory, in Opposition to the Pretensions of the Government of the United States of America. With a Chronological Table, and a Map of the Territory. New York: William Taylor, 1845.
- Farnham, Thomas J[efferson]. History of Oregon Territory, It Being a Demonstration of the Title of These United States of North America to the Same. New York: New World Press, 1844.
- Farnham, Thomas Jefferson. Travels in the Great Western Prairies, the Anahuac and Rocky Mountains, and in the Oregon Territory. Poughkeepsie: Killey & Lossing, 1841.
- [Flint, Timothy.] The Shoshonee Valley: A Romance. Cincinnati: Published by E.H. Flint, 1830.
- Floyd, John. Report of the Committee, to whom was Referred a Resolution of the House of Representatives of the 19th December last, directing an Inquiry to the Situation of Settlements on the Pacific Ocean, and the Expediency of Occupying the Columbia River; accompanied with a Bill to Authorize the Occupation of the Columbia River, &c. [n.p.], 1821.
- Franchère, Gabriel; translated by J. V. Huntington. Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America in the Years 1811, 1812, 1813, and 1814; or, the First American Settlement on the Pacific. New York: Redfield, 1854.
- Frémont, John Charles. Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842; and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-’44. Washington: Gales and Seaton, Printers, 1845.
- Gass, Patrick. A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke of the Army of the United States: from the Mouth of the River Missouri through the Interior Parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean, during the Years 1804, 1805 & 1806; Containing an Authentic Relation of the Most Interesting Transactions during the Expedition, —a Description of the Country, —and an Account of its Inhabitants, Soil, Climate, Curiosities and Vegetable and Animal Productions. Pittsburgh: David M’Keehan, 1807.
- Gray, W. H. A History of Oregon, 1792-1849, Drawn from Personal Observation and Authentic Information. Portland: Harris & Holman, 1870.
- Greenhow, Robert. Memoir, Historical and Political, on the Northwest Coast of North America, and the Adjacent Territories; Illustrated by a Map and a Geographical View of Those Countries. Washington, [D.C.]: Blair and Rives, printers, 1840.
- Grover, La Fayette. The Oregon Archives: Including the Journals, Governors’ Messages and Public Papers of Oregon, from the Earliest Attempt on the Part of the People to Form a Government, down to, and Inclusive of the Session of the Territorial Legislature Held in the Year 1849, Collected and Published Pursuant to an Act of the Legislative Assembly, Passed January 26, 1853. Salem: A. Bush, 1853.
- Hancock, Samuel. The Narrative of Samuel Hancock, 1845-1860. New York: Robert M. McBride & Co., 1927.
- Hastings, Lansford W. The Emigrants’ Guide to Oregon and California, Containing Scenes and Incidents of a Party of Oregon Emigrants; a Description of Oregon; Scenes and Incidents of a Party of California Emigrants; and a Description of California; with a Description of the Different Routes to those Countries; and All Necessary Information Relative to the Equipment, Supplies, and the Method of Traveling. Cincinnati: Published by George Conclin, Stereotyped by Shepard & Co., 1845.
- De Hezeta, Bruno. For Honor and Country: The Diary of Bruno de Hezeta. Portland: Western Imprints, The Press of the Oregon Historical Society, 1985.
- Holmes, Kenneth L. Covered Wagon Women, Diaries & Letters from the Western Trails. 11 Volumes. Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1983-1993.
- Howay, Frederick W., ed; [Journals by Robert Haswell, John B. Hoskins and John Boit.] Voyages of the “Columbia” to the Northwest Coast, 1787-1790 and 1790-1793. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1941.
- Howison, Neil M. Oregon: Report of Lieut. Neil M. Howison, United States Navy, to the Commander of the Pacific Squadron: Being the Result of an Examination in the Year 1846 of the Coast, Harbors, Rivers, Soil, Productions, Climate, and Population of the Territory of Oregon: February 29, 1848. [Washington, DC]: Tippin & Streeper, 1849.
- Irving, Washington. Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, 1836.
- Irving, Washington. The Crayon Miscellany. No. 1. Containing a Tour on the Prairies. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, 1835.
- Irving, Washington. The Rocky Mountains: or, Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Far West; Digested from the Journal of Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville, of the Army of the United States, and Illustrated from Various Other Sources. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, 1837. [Note: this is the American title which was published a month after The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; Or, Scenes Beyond the Rocky Mountains of the Far West, London: Richard Bentley,1837, which contained edits not authorized by Irving.]
- Jewitt, John R[odgers]; [Richard Alsop]. Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt; Only Survivor of the Crew of the Ship Boston, During a Captivity of Nearly Three Years Among the Savages of Nootka Sound: With an Account of the Manners, Mode of Living, and Religious Opinions of the Natives. Middletown: Printed by Seth Richards, 1815.
- Johnson, Overton; Winter, William H. Route across the Rocky Mountains: with a Description of Oregon and California, their Geographical Features, their Resources, Soil, Climate, Productions, &c., &c. Lafayette, Indiana: J. B. Semans, 1846.
- Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through Hudson’s Bay Company’s Territory and Back Again. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1859.
- Kelley, Hall J[ackson]. A General Circular to all Persons of Good Character, Who Wish to Emigrate to the Oregon Territory, Embracing Some Account of the Character and Advantages of the Country the Right and the Means and Operations by Which it is to be Settled;—and all Necessary Directions for Becoming an Emigrant. Charlestown: Printed by W.W. Wheildon; Boston: R.P. & C. Williams, 1831.
- Ledyard, John. A Journal of Captain Cook’s Last Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and in Quest of a North-West Passage, Between Asia & America; Performed in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779. Illustrated with a Chart, Shewing the Tracts of the Ships Employed in this Expedition. Hartford: Nathaniel Patten, 1783.
- Lee, Daniel; Frost, Joseph. Ten Years in Oregon. New York: Published for the Authors, 200 Mulberry-Street, J. Collord, Printer, 1844.
- Lewis, Meriwether; Clark, William. History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark to the Sources of the Missouri, Thence Across the Rocky Mountains and Down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. Performed During the Years 1804-5-6. Philadelphia: J. Maxwell for Bradford & Inskeep and Abm. H. Inskeep of New York, 1814.
- Linn, Dr. Lewis F. Report of the Select Committee to Authorize the President of the United States to Occupy the Oregon Territory. Washington, DC: Blair & Rives, 1838.
- MacKenzie, Alexander. Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Laurence, through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1789 and 1793, with a Preliminary Account of the Rise, Progress and Present State of the Fur Trade of that Country. London : T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, 1801.
- Marshall, William I. Acquisition of Oregon: and the Long Suppressed Evidence about Marcus Whitman. Seattle: Lowman & Hanford Co., 1911.
- McArthur, Lewis. Oregon Geographic Names. 1928-2003-?
- McLoughlin, John.] edited by E. E. Rich; introduction by W. Kaye Lamb. The Letters of John McLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1941 (First Series, 1825-38), 1943 (Second Series, 1839-44), 1944 (Third Series, 1844-46).
- Meares, John. Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 1789, from China to the North West Coast of America. To which are Prefixed, an Introductory Narrative of a Voyage Performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka; Observations on the Probable Existence of a North West Passage; and some Account of the Trade between the North West Coast of America and China; and the Latter Country and Great Britain. London: Printed at the Logographic Press; and sold by J. Walter, 1790.
- Merk, Frederick, editor. Fur Trade and Empire; George Simpson’s Journal; Remarks Connected with the Fur Trade in the Course of a Voyage from York Factory to Fort George and back to York Factory 1824-1825; together with Accompanying Documents. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931.
- Morgan, Dale. Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1953.
- Nicolay, C[harles] G[renfell]. The Oregon Territory: A Geographical and Physical Account of that Country and its Inhabitants; with Outlines of its History and Discovery. London: Charles Knight & Co, 1846.
- [Nootka Sound Controversy.] Official Papers relative to the Dispute between the Courts of Great Britain and Spain, On the Subject of the Ships Captured in Nootka Sound, and the Negotiation that followed thereon; together with the Proceedings of both Houses of Parliament on the King’s Message: to which are added the Report of M. de Mirabeau, etc. London: Printed for J. Debrett, [ca. 1790].
- Ogden, Peter Skene.] Rich, E. E. and A. M. Johnon. Peter Skene Ogden’s Snake Country Journals 1824-25 and 1825-26. London: The Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1950.
Palmer, Joel. Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains to the Mouth of the Columbia River Made during the Years 1845 and 1846: Containing Minute Descriptions of the Valleys of the Willamette, Umpqua and Clamet, a General Description of Oregon Territory, its Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Productions, etc., etc.: A List of Necessary Outfits for Emigrants and a Table of Distances from Camp to Camp on the Route. Cincinnati: J. A. and U. P. James, 1847.
Parker, Samuel. Journal of an Exploring Tour beyond the Rocky Mountains. Ithaca: Published by the author, 1838.
Polk, James K. The Diary of James K. Polk During His Presidency, 1845 to 1849 Now First Printed From the Original Manuscript in the Collections of the Chicago Historical Society. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co, 1910.
Robertson, Wyndham, Jr. Oregon, Our Right and Title, Containing an Account of the Condition of the Oregon Territory, Its Soil, Climate, and Geographical Position; together with a Statement of the Claims of Russian, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States; accompanied with a Map, Prepared by the Author. Washington: Printed by J. & G. S. Gideon, 1846.
Root, Riley. Journal of Travels from St. Joseph to Oregon, with Observations of that Country, together with Some Description of California, its Agricultural Intersts, and a Full Description of its Gold Mine. Galesburg, Illinois: Intelligencer Print, 1850.
Ross, Alexander. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River: Being a Narrative of the Expedition Fitted out by John Jacob Astor to Establish the “Pacific Fur Company”, with an Account of Some Indian Tribes on the Coast of the Pacific. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1849.
Ross, Alexander. The Fur Hunters of the Far West: a Narrative of Adventures in the Oregon and Rocky Mountains. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1855.
Russell, Osborne. Journal of a Trapper, or, Nine Years in the Rocky Mountains, 1834-1843: Being a General Description of the Country, Climate, Rivers, Lakes, Mountains, etc., and a View of the Life Led by a Hunter in those Regions. Boise, Idaho: Syms-York Co., 1914.
Simpson, George.] Part of Dispatch from George Simpson Esqr Governor of Ruperts Land to the Governor & Committee of the Hudson’s Bay Company London. March 1, 1829. Continued and Completed March 24 and June 5, 1829. (cover title: Simpson’s 1828 Journey to the Columbia). The Champlain Society for The Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1947.
Slacum, William A. Memorial Of William A. Slacum, Praying Compensation for his Services in Obtaining Information in Relation to the Settlements on the Oregon River. December 18, 1837. Blair & Rives, 1837.
Stuart, Robert; edited by Phillip Ashton Rollins. The Discovery of the Oregon Trail. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons and Edward Eberstadt & Sons, 1935. [Of the first edition of one thousand copies, six hundred were published as Scribner’s and four hundred as Eberstadt.]
Swan, James G. The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years’ Residence in Washington Territory. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1857.
Thompson, David; edited by Joseph Burr Tyrrell. David Thompson’s Narrative of his Explorations in Western America, 1784-1812. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1916.
Thornton, J. Quinn. Oregon and California in 1848. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1855.
Townsend, John K. Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Mountains, to the Columbia River, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands, Chili, &c. with a Scientific Appendix. Philadelphia: Henry Perkins, 1839.
Twiss, Travers. The Oregon Question Examined: In Respect to Facts and the Law of Nations. London : Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846.
Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World; in which the Coast of North-West America has been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed. Undertaken by His Majesty’s Command, Principally with a View to Ascertain the Existence of any Navigable Communication between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans; and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795, in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham, under the Command of Captain George Vancouver. London: Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson, Paternoster-Row, and J. Edwards, Pall-Mall, 1798.
Victor, Frances Fuller]; Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Oregon. San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers, 1886.
Victor, Frances Fuller. The River of the West. Life and Adventure in the Rocky Mountains and Oregon; Embracing Events in the Life-time of a Mountain-man and Pioneer; with the Early History of the North-Western Slope. Hartford, Conn.: Columbian Book Co.; Newark, NJ: Bliss, 1870.
Victor, Frances Fuller. Indian Wars of Oregon; Compiled from the Oregon Archives and Other Original Sources with Muster Rolls. Salem: Frank C. Baker, 1894.
Walker, William.] Disosway, G. P. “The Flat-Head Indians.” Christian Advocate and Journal and Zion’s Herald. Vol. 7, No. 3. March 1, 1833.
Warre, Sir Henry James. Sketches in North America and the Oregon Territory. N.p., n.d. [London: Dickinson & Co, 1848]
White, Elijah. A Concise View of Oregon Territory, Its Colonial and Indian Relations; Compiled from Official Letters and Reports, Together with the Organic Laws of the Colony. Washington, DC: T. Barnard, 1846.
Whitman, Narcissa. Journal & Letters. [Published in parts in Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association. Two compilations of note are The Coming of the White Women 1836 as Told in Letters and Journal of Narcissa Prentiss Whitman, edited by T.C. Elliot, 1937; and The Letters of Narcissa Whitman, second edition, edited by Glen Adams, 1989.]
Wilkes, Charles. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Philadelphia: C. Sherman, 1845.
Wilkes, Charles. Western America, Including California and Oregon, with Maps of Those Regions, and of “The Sacramento Valley.” Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1849.
Wilkes, George. The History of Oregon, Geographical and Political. Embracing an Analysis of the Old Spanish Claims, the British Pretensions, the United States Title, an Account of the Present Condition and Character of the Country and a Thorough Examination of the Project of a National Railroad, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. New York: William H. Colyer, 1845.
Wyeth, John B. Oregon, or, A Short History of a Long Journey from the Atlantic Ocean to the Region of the Pacific by Land: Drawn up from the Notes and Oral Information of John B. Wyeth, One of the Party who Left Mr. Nathaniel J. Wyeth, July 28th, 1832, Four Days’ March Beyond the Ridge of the Rocky Mountains, and the Only One who Has Returned to New England. Cambridge: Printed for J.B. Wyeth, 1833.
Wyeth, Nathaniel J.] Edited by F. G. Young. The Correspondence and Journals of Captain Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1831-6, A Record of Two Expeditions for the Occupation of the Oregon Country, with Maps, Introduction and Index. (Sources of the History of Oregon, Volume I, Parts 3 to 6 inclusive.) Eugene, Ore.: University Press, 1899.
Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association.
The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society.